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Active and Recently Completed Grants


Depression Treatment to Reduce the Excess Diabetes Risk of People with Depression and Prediabetes (PI: Stewart)


$412,334 ($275,000 direct costs + $137,334 indirect costs)


This pilot randomized controlled trial (R21 DK 123582; NCT04437485) seeks: (1) to determine the preliminary efficacy of our modernized collaborative care intervention for depression in improving the diabetes risk markers of hemoglobin A1c and insulin resistance and (2) to explore whether somatic depressive symptoms - i.e., hyperphagia (increased appetite/weight) and/or hypersomnia (increased sleep) - moderate the effect of the eIMPACT-DM intervention on diabetes risk markers.


Treating Insomnia to Reduce Inflammation in HIV (Multi-PI: Gupta, Stewart)


$425,537 ($275,000 direct costs + $150,537 indirect costs)


This pilot randomized controlled trial (R21 MH127206; NCT04721067) seeks to evaluate the effects of an

internet cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) called Sleep Health Using The Internet (SHUTi) on

biomarkers of systemic inflammation and monocyte activation in virologically-suppressed, HIV-positive adults

with insomnia disorder.


Longer-Term Cardiovascular and Psychiatric Consequences of SARS-CoV-2 Infection: Prevalence and Insights

into Shared Mechanisms (Multi-PI: Raman, Stewart)



Indiana Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute (UL1TR002529)

This pilot case-control study, funded by a 2021 Collaboration In Translational Research (CTR) award, seeks: (1)

to assess whether recovered SARS-CoV-2 patients, versus controls, have elevated psychiatric symptoms,

greater subclinical cardiac/vascular abnormalities, and increased biomarkers of systemic inflammation and

coagulation 6-12 months post-diagnosis and (2) to examine whether inflammatory/coagulation biomarkers

are positively associated with psychiatric factors and subclinical cardiac/vascular abnormalities.


Alcohol-Associated Syndemic and Microbiome Evaluation and Targeted Treatment in Persons Living with

HIV (PI: Chichetto)



This aims of this award (K01AA029042) are to test the hypotheses that the alcohol-associated syndemic is

associated with GI dysbiosis and subsequent CVD risk and that targeted supplementation may restore GI

microbiome homeostasis and reduce inflammation.

Recently Completed:

Modernized Collaborative Care to Reduce the Excess CVD Risk of Depressed Patients (PI: Stewart)

4/21/15-3/31/21 (NCE)

$2,647,352 ($1,735,751 direct costs + $911,601 indirect costs)


The aims of this phase II randomized controlled trial (R01 HL122245) are (1) to determine whether a modernized depression intervention called eIMPACT reduces the excess cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk of depressed primary care patients and (2) to identify the mechanisms by which this improvement may occur.

Role: Principal Investigator


HIV, Depression, and Cardiovascular Risk (Multi-PI: Gupta, Stewart, Freiberg)


$2,917,578 ($2,212,471 direct costs + $705,107 indirect costs)


The overall objective of this set of projects (R01 HL126557) is to examine the associations of depressive disorders and treatment with markers of systemic inflammation, coagulation, and endothelial function in HIV-infected adults.

Role: Principal Investigator (Multi-PI)


Internet-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy to Treat Insomnia in HIV (Multi-PI: Gupta, Stewart)


Indiana CTSI (UL1 TR001108), IUPUI Department of Psychology, IU Center for AIDS Research


The aims of this pilot randomized controlled trial are: (1) to evaluate the effect of internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia on insomnia symptom severity and global sleep quality and (2) to compare measures of frailty and cognitive functioning between those with and without clinical levels of insomnia in people with HIV.

Role: Principal Investigator (Multi-PI)

Influence of Immigrant Status on Providers’ Diabetes Treatment Decisions


This Indiana CTSI Predoctoral Award is funded in part by Grant #UL1TR001108 (Shekhar, PI). The awardee is Loretta Hsueh, a clinical psychology PhD mentee of Dr. Stewart. The objective of this project is to employ virtual human technology to examine the influence of patient immigrant status on primary care providers’ treatment decisions with Mexican American adults with type 2 diabetes. This award also provides training in virtual human technologies, clinical trial design and implementation, and dissemination of research to practice.

Role: Sponsor (Co-Sponsor: Kieren J. Mather, MD)


Red text represents a student working with Dr. Stewart

1.  Stewart, J.C., & France, C.R. (2001). Cardiovascular recovery from stress predicts longitudinal changes in blood pressure. Biological Psychology, 58, 105-120.

2.  France, C.R., Froese, S., & Stewart, J.C. (2002). Altered central nervous system processing of noxious stimuli contributes to decreased pain perception in individuals at risk for hypertension. Pain, 98, 101-108.

3.  Stewart, J.C., France, C.R., & Sheffield, D. (2003). Hypertension awareness and pain reports: Data from the NHANES III. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 26, 8-14.

4.  Suhr, J.A., Stewart, J.C., & France, C.R. (2004). The relationship between blood pressure and cognitive performance in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Psychosomatic Medicine, 66, 291-297.

5.  Stewart, J.C., France, C.R., & Suhr, J.A. (2006). The effect of cardiac cycle phase on reaction time among individuals at varying risk for hypertension. Journal of Psychophysiology, 20, 1-8.

6.  Stewart, J.C., Janicki, D.L., & Kamarck, T.W. (2006). Cardiovascular reactivity to and recovery from psychological challenge as predictors of 3-year change in blood pressure. Health Psychology, 25, 111-118.


7.  Stewart, K.R., France, C.R., Rader, A.W., & Stewart, J.C. (2006). Phlebotomist interpersonal skill predicts a reduction in reactions among volunteer blood donors. Transfusion, 46, 1394-1401.

8.  Stewart, J.C., Janicki, D.L., Muldoon, M.F., Sutton-Tyrrell, K., & Kamarck, T.W. (2007). Negative emotions and 3-year progression of subclinical atherosclerosis. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64, 225-233.

9.  Stewart, J.C., Janicki-Deverts, D., Muldoon, M.F., & Kamarck, T.W. (2008). Depressive symptoms moderate the influence of hostility on serum interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein. Psychosomatic Medicine, 70, 197-204.

10.  Stewart, J.C., Rand, K.L., Muldoon, M.F., & Kamarck, T.W. (2009). A prospective evaluation of the directionality of the depression-inflammation relationship. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 23, 936-944.

11.  Stewart, J. C., Fitzgerald, G. J., & Kamarck, T. W. (2010). Hostility now, depression later? Longitudinal associations among emotional risk factors for coronary artery disease. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 39, 258-266.

12.  Stewart, J. C., Rand, K. L., Hawkins, M. A., & Stines, J. (2011). Association of the shared and unique aspects of positive and negative emotional factors with sleep quality. Personality and Individual Differences, 50, 609-614.

13.  Brown, J.M., Stewart, J.C., Stump, T.E., and Callahan, C.M. (2011). Risk of coronary heart disease events over 15 years among older adults with depressive symptoms. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 19, 721-729.

14.  Hawkins, M.A.W., Stewart, J.C., Fitzgerald, G.J., and Kim, S. (2011). Combined effect of depressive symptoms and hostility on autonomic nervous system function. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 81, 317-323.

15.  Stewart, J.C., Zielke, D.J., Hawkins, M.A.W., Williams, D. R., Carnethon, M.R., Knox, S.S., & Matthews, K.A. (2012). Depressive symptom clusters and 5-year incidence of coronary artery calcification: The CARDIA Study. Circulation, 126, 410-417.

16.  Hawkins, M.A.W., & Stewart, J.C. (2012). Do negative emotional factors have independent associations with excess adiposity? Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 73, 243-250.

17.  Khambaty, T., & Stewart, J.C. (2013). Associations of depressive and anxiety disorders with periodontal disease prevalence in young adults: Analysis of 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 45, 393-397.

18.  Gao, S., Hendrie, H.C., Yang, L., Stump, T.E., Stewart, J.C., Kesterson, J., Clark, D.O., & Callahan, C.M. (2013). Increase in blood pressure precedes clinical depression in elderly primary care patients. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 28, 1099-1100.

19.  Brown, L.F., Rand, K.L., Bigatti, S.M., Stewart, J.C., Theobald, D.E., Wu, J., & Kroenke, K. (2013). Longitudinal relationships between fatigue and depression in cancer patients with depression and/or pain. Health Psychology, 32, 1199-1208.

20.  Stewart, J.C., Perkins, A.J., & Callahan, C.M. (2014). Effect of collaborative care for depression on risk of cardiovascular events: Data from the IMPACT randomized controlled trial. Psychosomatic Medicine, 76, 29-37.

21.  Hawkins, M.A.W., Callahan, C.M., Stump, T.E., & Stewart, J.C. (2014). Depressive symptom clusters as predictors of incident coronary artery disease events: A 15-year prospective study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 76, 38-43.

22.  Hickman, R.J., Khambaty, T., & Stewart, J.C. (2014). C-reactive protein is elevated in atypical but not nonatypical depression: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 37, 621-629.

23.  Stewart, J.C., & Rollman, B.L. (2014). Optimizing approaches to addressing depression in cardiac patients: A comment on O’Neil et al. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 48, 142-144.

24.  Khambaty, T., Stewart, J. C., Muldoon, M. F., & Kamarck, T. W. (2014). Depressive symptom clusters as predictors of 6-year increases in insulin resistance: Data from the Pittsburgh Healthy Heart Project. Psychosomatic Medicine, 76, 363-369.

25.  Case, S.M., & Stewart, J.C. (2014). Race/ethnicity moderates the relationship between depressive symptom severity and C-reactive protein: 2005-2010 NHANES Data. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 41, 101-108.

26.  Gao, S., Hendrie, H.C., Wang, C., Stump, T.E., Stewart, J.C., Kesterson, J., Clark, D.O., & Callahan, C.M. (2014). Redefined blood pressure variability measure and its association with mortality in elderly primary care patients. Hypertension, 64, 45-52.

27.  Berntson, J., Stewart, K.R., Vrany, E., Khambaty, T., & Stewart, J.C. (2015). Depressive symptoms and self-reported adherence to medical recommendations to prevent cardiovascular disease: NHANES 2005-2010. Social Science & Medicine, 138, 74-81.

28.  Hawkins, M.A.W., Miller, D.K., & Stewart, J.C. (2015). A 9-year, bidirectional prospective analysis of depressive symptoms and adiposity: The African American Health Study. Obesity, 23, 192-199.


29.  White, J.R., Chang, C.H., So-Armah, K.A., Stewart, J.C., Gupta, S.K., Butt, A.A., Gibert, C.A., Rimland, D., Rodriguez-Barradas, M.C., Leaf, D.A., Bedimo, R.J., Gottdiener, J.S., Kop, W.J., Gottlieb, S.S., Budoff, M.J., Khambaty, T., Tindle, H., Justice, A.C., & Freiberg, M.S. (2015). Depression and HIV infection are risk factors for incident heart failure among Veterans: Veterans Aging Cohort Study. Circulation, 132, 1630-1638.


30.  Vrany, E.A., Berntson, J.M., Khambaty, T., & Stewart, J.C. (2016). Depressive symptom clusters and insulin resistance: Race/ethnicity as a moderator in 2005-2010 NHANES Data. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 50, 1-11.


31.  Hollingshead, N.A., Vrany, E.A., Stewart, J.C., Hirsh, A.T. (2016). Differences in Mexican American’s prevalence of chronic pain and co-occurring analgesic medication and substance use relative to Non-Hispanic White and Black Americans: Results from NHANES 1999-2004. Pain Medicine, 17, 1001-1009.


32.  Hollingshead, N.A., Ashburn-Nardo, L., Stewart J.C., Hirsh, A.T. (2016). The pain experience of Hispanic Americans: A critical literature review and conceptual model. Journal of Pain, 17, 513-528.

33.  Stewart, J.C. (2016). One effect size does not fit all: Is the depression-inflammation link missing in racial/ethnic minority individuals? JAMA Psychiatry, 73, 301-302.


34.  Stewart, J.C., Hawkins, M.A.W., Khambaty, T., Perkins, A.J., & Callahan, C.M. (2016). Depression and anxiety screens as predictors of 8-year incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke in primary care patients. Psychosomatic Medicine, 78, 593-601.

35.  Khambaty, T., Stewart, J.C., Gupta, S.K., Chang, C.H., Bedimo, R.J., Budoff, M.J., Butt, A.A., Crane, H., Gilbert, C.L., Leaf, D.A., Rimland, D., Tindle, H.A., So-Armah, K., Justice, A.C., Freiberg, M.S. (2016). Association between depressive disorders and incident acute myocardial infarction in HIV-infected adults: Veterans Aging Cohort Study. JAMA Cardiology, 1, 929-937.

36.  Khambaty, T., Callahan, C.M., Perkins, A.J., & Stewart, J.C. (2017). Depression and anxiety screens as simultaneous predictors of 10-year incidence of diabetes among older primary care patients. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 65(2), 294-300.

37.  Carroll, A.J., Auer, R., Colangelo, L.A., Carnethon, M.R., Jacobs, D.R., Stewart, J.C., Widome, R., Carr, J.J., Liu, K., & Hitsman, B.L. (2017). Association of the interaction between smoking and depressive symptom clusters with coronary artery calcification: The CARDIA study. Journal of Dual Diagnosis, 13(1), 43-51.

38.  Carroll, A.J., Carnethon, M.R., Liu, K., Jacobs, D.R., Colangelo, L.A., Stewart, J.C., Carr, J.J., Widome, R., Auer, R., & Hitsman, B.L. (2017). Interaction between smoking and depressive symptoms with subclinical heart disease in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Health Psychology, 36(2), 101-11.

39.  Freiberg, M.S., Stewart, J.C., & Khambaty, T. (2017). The association of depression and cardiovascular disease-reply. JAMA Cardiology, 2(6), 703.

40.  Polanka, B.M., Vrany, E.A., Patel, J., & Stewart, J.C. (2017). Depressive disorder sub types as predictors of incident obesity in U.S. adults: Moderation by race/ethnicity. American Journal of Epidemiology, 185(9), 734-742.

41. Berntson, J., Patel, J.S., & Stewart, J.C. (2017). Number of recent stressful life events and incident cardiovascular disease: Moderation by lifetime depressive disorder. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 99, 149-154.

42. Merlin, J.S., Westfall, A.O., Heath, S.L., Goodin, B.R., Stewart, J.C., Sorge, R.E., & Young, J. (2017). IL-1β levels are associated with chronic multisite pain in people living with HIV. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, 75(4), e99-e103.

43. Case, S.M., Sawhney, M.Stewart, J.C. (2018). Atypical depression and double depression predict new-onset cardiovascular disease in U.S. Adults. Depression and Anxiety, 35(1), 10-17.

44. Hsueh, L., Vrany, E.A., Patel, J.S., Hollingshead, N.A., Hirsh, A.T., de Groot, M., & Stewart, J.C. (2018). Associations between immigrant status and pharmacological treatments for diabetes in U.S. adults. Health Psychology, 37, 61-69.

45. Polanka, B.M., Berntson, J., Vrany, E.A., & Stewart, J.C. (2018). Are Cardiovascular Risk Factors Stronger Predictors of Incident Cardiovascular Disease in U.S. Adults With Versus Without a History of Clinical Depression? Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 52, 1036-1045.

46. Vrany, E.A., Hawkins, M.A.W., Wu, W., & Stewart, J.C. (2018). Depressive symptoms and weight loss behaviors in U.S. adults. Eating Behaviors, 29, 107-113.


47. Patel, J.S., Berntson, J., Polanka, B.M., & Stewart, J.C. (2018). Cardiovascular risk factors as differential predictors of incident atypical and typical major depressive disorder in U.S. adults. Psychosomatic Medicine, 80, 508-514.

48. Hawkins, M. A. W., Vrany, E. A., Cyders, M. A., Ciciolla, L., Wells, T., & Stewart, J. C. (2018). Association between depressive symptom clusters and food attentional bias. Eating Behaviors, 31, 24-27.

49. Khambaty, T., Callahan, C. M., & Stewart, J. C. (2018). Effect of collaborative depression treatment on risk for diabetes: A 9-year follow-up of the IMPACT randomized controlled trial. PLoS One, 13, e0200248.


50. Carroll, A.J., Huffman, M.D., Zhao, L., Jacobs D.R., Stewart, J.C., Kiefe, C., Liu, K., & Hitsman, B. (2019). Evaluating longitudinal associations between depression, smoking, and biomarkers of cardiovascular disease in The CARDIA Study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 81, 372-379.


51. Polanka, B.M., Kundu, S., So-Armah, K.A., Freiberg, M.S., Gupta, S.K., Bedimo, R.J., Budoff, M.J., Butt, A.A., Chang, C.H., Gottlieb, S., Marconi, V.C., Womack, J.A., & Stewart, J.C. (2019). Insomnia as an independent predictor of incident cardiovascular disease in HIV: Data from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS). Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 81, 110-117.


52. So-Armah, K., Gupta, S.K., Kundu, S., Stewart, J.C., Goulet, J.L., Butt, A.A., Sico, J.J., Marconi, V.C., Crystal, S., Rodriguez-Barradas, M.C., Budoff, M., Gibert, C.L., Chang, C.H., Bedimo, R., & Freiberg, M.S. (2019). Depression and all-cause mortality risk in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected U.S. veterans: A cohort study. HIV Medicine, 20, 317-329.


53. Patel, J.S., Oh, Y., Rand, K.L., Wu, W., Kroenke, K., & Stewart, J.C. (2019). Measurement invariance of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) depression screener in U.S. adults across sex, race/ethnicity, and education level: NHANES 2005-2014. Depression and Anxiety, 36, 813-823.

54. Hsueh, L., Peña, J.M., Hirsh, A.T., de Groot, M., & Stewart, J.C. (2020). Diabetes risk perception among immigrant and racial/ethnic minority groups in the U.S. The Diabetes Educator, 260, 45, 642-651

55. Carroll, A.J., Huffman, M.D., Zhao, L., Jacobs D.R., Stewart, J.C., Kiefe, C., Brunner, W., Liu, K., & Hitsman, B. (2020). Associations between depressive symptoms, cigarette smoking, and cardiovascular health: Longitudinal results from CARDIA. Journal of Affective Disorders, 260, 583-591.

56. Shell, A.L., Hsueh, L., Vrany, E.A., Clark, D.O., Keith, N.R., Xu, H., & Stewart, J.C. (2020). Depressive symptom severity as a predictor of attendance in the HOME behavioral weight loss trial. Journal of Psychosomatic Research., 131, 1-6.

57. Stewart, J.C., Polanka, B.M., So-Armah, K.A., White, J.R., Gupta, S.K., Kundu, S., Chang, C.H., & Freiberg, M.S. (2020). Associations of Total, Cognitive/Affective, and Somatic Depressive Symptoms and Antidepressant Use with Cardiovascular Disease-Relevant Biomarkers in HIV: Veterans Aging Cohort Study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 82, 5, 461-470. 

58. Anastas, T.M., Miller, M.M., Hollingshead, N.A., Stewart, J.C., Rand, K.L., & Hirsh, A.T. (2020). The unique and interactive effects of patient race, patient socioeconomic status, and provider attitudes on chronic pain care decisions. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 54, 771-782.

59. Chichetto, N.E., Polanka, B.M., So-Armah, K.A., Sung, M, Stewart, J.C., Koethe, J.R., Edelman,  E.J., Tindle, H.A., Freiberg, M.S. (2020). Contribution of behavioral health factors to non-AIDS-related comorbidities: An updated review. Current HIV/AIDS Reports, 17, 354-372.

60. Scheier, M.F., Swanson, J.D., Barlow, M.A., Greenhouse, J.B., & Tindle, H.A. for the Optimism/Pessimism Meta-Analytic Consortium.* (in press). Optimism versus pessimism as predictors of physical health: A comprehensive reanalysis of dispositional optimism research. American Psychologist.*I am a member of this consortium.

61. Gupta, S.K., Slaven, J.E., Liu, Z., Polanka, B.M., Freiberg, M.S., & Stewart, J.C. (2020). Effects of internet cognitive-behavioral therapy on depressive symptoms and surrogates of cardiovascular risk in HIV: A pilot, randomized, controlled trial. Open Forum Infectious Diseases, 7, ofaa280.

62. Hsueh, L., Wu, W., Hirsh, A.T., de Groot, M., Mather, K.J., & Stewart, J.C. (2020). Undiagnosed diabetes among immigrant and racial/ethnic minority adults in the U.S.: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2018. Annals of Epidemiology, 51, 14-19.

63. Fischer, I.C., Shanahan, M.L., Hirsh, A.T., Stewart, J.C., & Rand, K.L. (2020). The relationship between meaning in life and post-traumatic stress symptoms in US military personnel: A meta-analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders, 277, 658-670.

64. Hsueh, L., Hirsh, A.T., Maupomé, G., & Stewart, J.C. (2021). Patient-provider language concordance and health outcomes: A systematic review, evidence map, and research agenda. Medical Care Research and Review, 78, 3-23.


65. Shanahan, M.L., Fischer, I.C., Hirsh, A.T., Stewart, J.C., & Rand, K.L. (in press). Hope, optimism, and clinical pain: A meta-analysis. Annals of Behavioral Medicine.


66. Hollingshead N.A., †Vrany E.A., Hsueh, L., Stewart, J.C., & Hirsh, A.T. (in press) Language use and generation status are associated with chronic pain differences in Mexican Americans. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health.


67. Polanka, B.M., Kundu, S., So-Armah, K.A., Freiberg, M.S., Gupta, S.K., Bedimo, R.J., Budoff, M.J., Butt, A.A., Chang, C.H., Gottlieb, S., Marconi, V.C., Womack, J.A., & Stewart, J.C. (2021). The association between insomnia symptoms and measures of monocyte activation, systemic inflammation, and coagulation in HIV: Data from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS). PLOS One, 9, e0246073.


68. Vrany, E.A., Polanka, B.M., Hsueh, L., Hill-Briggs, F., & Stewart J.C. (in press) Race/ethnicity moderates associations between depressive symptoms and diet composition among U.S. adults. Health Psychology.


69. Procento, P.M., Rand, K.L., Stewart, J.C., & Hirsh, A.T. (in press). Pain catastrophizing mediates and moderates the link between acute pain and working memory. The Journal of Pain.


70. Hsueh, L., Hirsh, A.T., Zapolski, T., de Groot, M., Mather, K.J., & Stewart, J.C. (2021). Influence of patient immigrant status on physician trainee diabetes treatment decisions: A virtual patient experimental study. Journal of Behavioral Medicine.


71. Sico, J.J., Kundu, S., So-Armah, K., Gupta, S.K., Chang, C.H., Butt, A.A., Gibert, C.L., Marconi, V.C., Crystal, S., Tindle, H.A., Freiberg, M.S., & Stewart, J.C. (2021). Depression as a risk factor for incident ischemic stroke among HIV-positive veterans in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study. Journal of the American Heart Association.

72. Shell, A.L., Jackson, R.A., Patel, J.S., Hirsh, A.T., Cyders, M.A., & Stewart, J.C. (2021). Associations of

somatic depressive symptoms with food attentional bias and eating behaviors. Appetite, 167.

73. Shell, A.L., Oglesby, L., Um, M., Stewart, J.C., & Cyders, M.A. (in press). Negative urgency and central adiposity in a community sample: Moderated mediation by depressive symptoms and eating behaviors. Eating Behaviors.

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